Research results vary on whether MDMA is addictive. Experiments have shown that animals will self-administer MDMA—an important indicator of a drug’s abuse potential—although to a lesser degree than some other drugs such as cocaine.
Some people report signs of addiction, including the following withdrawal symptoms:
loss of appetite
WHAT IS THE NORMAL DOSAGE OF MDMA
For most people ,a normal dose of MDMA is between 70 and 125mg,HOwever,some people require more to feel thesame effect,while other require less.
Taking a single redose of 1/3 to 1/2 the original dose around the 2 to 3 hour mark can extend the experience a few more hours,Redosing any more than this usually will only increase side effects.
How can people get treatment for addiction to MDMA?
There are no specific medical treatments for MDMA addiction. Some people seeking treatment for MDMA addiction have found behavioral therapy to be helpful. Scientists need more research to determine how effective this treatment option is for addiction to MDMA.
When psychologist Martin Seligman became president of the American Psychological Association (APA) in 1998, he did something radical. Over the years, he had grown tired of his fields’ constant focus on the negative (mental illness, trauma, suffering, pain) and felt that more attention should be paid to the other side of the coin: happiness, well-being, and flourishing. He called this “positive psychology,” and made it the theme of his one-year term as APA’s leader. Instead of focusing solely on reducing ill-being, Seligman organized researchers and practitioners around the idea that people should also be given the tools to thrive.
According to experts, psychedelics could be on the way to becoming one of those tools. The past few years have brought a renaissance of research into the role of LSD, psilocybin (aka “magic mushrooms”), MDMA, ayahuasca, and other psychedelic substances in treating depression, PTSD, addiction, and other forms of mental illness. Now, there is a growing interest in bringing the purported benefits of these drugs to “healthy” people — those without diagnosed mental health disorders — in order to help them attain more aspirational levels of well-being.
“[Psychedelics] open your mind to a different subjective state of experience, a different way of seeing things, and I don’t see any reason why people should not be allowed to explore that part of their subjective experience if they want to,” says J.W.B Elsey, a PhD candidate in clinical psychology at the University of Amsterdam, who published a review examining existing research into psychedelics for healthy people. “I think it’s totally correct that they should be allowed to be explored in research for therapy, but also that really quite similar arguments apply for [healthy] people using them.”
This idea isn’t new, but it is gaining traction. In the 1990s, researcher Bob Jesse supported the use of psychedelics for what he called the “betterment of well people.” It’s an idea picked up by author Michael Pollan, who wrote the monumental 2018 book “How to Change Your Mind: What the New Science of Psychedelics Teaches Us About Consciousness, Dying, Addiction, Depression, and Transcendence.”
“Who doesn’t sometimes feel stuck in destructive habits of thought? Or couldn’t benefit from the mental reboot that a powerful experience of awe can deliver?” Pollan writes. “One of the lessons of the new [psychedelic] research is that not just mental illness but garden-variety unhappiness may owe something to living under the harsh rule of an ego that, whatever its value, walls us off from our emotions, from other people, and from nature.”
That argument isn’t without pushback. Though attitudes are shifting, psychedelics are still highly stigmatized. Psilocybin, LSD, MDMA, and similar drugs are on the federal government’s list of Schedule 1 substances, which means they are highly restricted, considered to have no currently accepted medical use, and a high potential for abuse. The idea that they can help with serious mental illness is still legally unaccepted and controversial. To think that everyone should be allowed to use them to reach a higher level of well-being? Not on the federal government’s watch.
This hasn’t stopped the biohackers, Silicon Valley personalities, and self-optimization zealots from dabbling in microdosing, ayahuasca ceremonies, and psychedelic tourism. While most of the evidence in support of these claims — improved mood, increased productivity, heightened creativity, deeper insights, and more — has been anecdotal, some researchers have looked into psychedelics’ role in boosting the lives of healthy people and, so far, many of the findings corroborate the claims.
In a 2006 study, for example, healthy volunteers who had never taken psychedelics before were given a dose of psilocybin in a controlled, clinical setting. Afterward, the majority described having a ‘‘complete mystical experience” characterized by self-reported feelings of “unity,” “intuitive knowledge of ultimate reality,” and other measures. Two months later, 58% of those volunteers said the trip was one of the most significant experiences in their lives and 64% reported an increased sense of well-being and life satisfaction following the trip.
While hard to measure, there’s mounting evidence to suggest these things can improve mental health and overall happiness — and that they may be needed now more than ever.
In a 2011 study, a dose of psilocybin given to healthy volunteers lead to a significant increase in openness — a personality trait characterized by imagination and insight — in the majority of the participants, and a 2015 study similarly found that a dose of LSD in healthy subjects led to a subjective increase in well-being, happiness, closeness to others, openness, and trust.
Research has also shown that the claim that psychedelics can unlock creativity could hold up. In a 2012 study, healthy volunteers who participated in several ayahuasca sessions showed a greater capacity for originality in a standardized test of creative thinking, which was similarly shown in a 2016 study. Other research, published last year, also showed that microdosing truffles (a relative to psilocybin) can improve convergent and divergent thinking — two markers of enhanced creativity.
OK, but does access to this altered state of mind brought on by a psychedelic trip really lead to increased wellness in healthy people? It depends on who you ask, and what “wellness” means to them, which makes the debate around psychedelics for healthy people a complicated one without definitive boundaries.
Whereas the presence or absence of depression can be measured on a clinical, APA-approved scale, things like “betterment” and “self-improvement” in healthy people are subjective experiences that are hard to quantify. Wellness in this country is still measured against an absence of disorder rather than markers of self-actualization, and it’s not widely accepted that things like mystical experiences, creativity, and a sense of purpose are necessary for overall well-being. “It’s new territory for us as people measuring psychological effects, and it’s a challenge,” says Harriet de Wit, PhD, founder of the Human Behavioral Pharmacology Laboratory at the University of Chicago.
De Wit recently ran an LSD microdosing study with healthy volunteers. She said the participants didn’t show any improvements in mood, but they did report small boosts in feelings of “oneness,” “awe,” and “connection to a higher power.” While hard to measure, there’s mounting evidence to suggest these things can improve mental health and overall happiness — and that they may be needed now more than ever. Western societies are on the brink of a loneliness epidemic, which some experts blame for the rise of suicide, and the United States does seem to be sliding further into a mass existential crisis caused by a sense of meaninglessness. This type of “garden-variety unhappiness,” as Pollan puts it, is hard to treat. Those advocating for the use of psychedelics for healthy people believe a consciousness-expanding trip could help.
Brad Burge, a spokesman for the Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies (MAPS), says that the organization believes that the mind-expanding benefits of psychedelics could “facilitate more holistic understandings of the world, and greater compassion for ourselves and for others.”
There’s another open question circling the use of psychedelics: their safety. Scientists still don’t have enough research to prove that these drugs are devoid of negative short- and long-term effects.
This concern has launched a separate line of research into psychedelics for healthy people — one specifically focused on examining safety. Though de Wit’s study used healthy volunteers, one main purpose of the research was to examine the potential risks involved in microdosing LSD as a treatment for depression. (No adverse risks were found). According to Brad Burge, the Beckley Foundation, a psychedelic research and policy organization, is also currently running a safety study to see if there are any potential negative side effects of microdosing LSD (though the researchers will also take measurements around creativity).
Knowing the risks associated with these drugs is a critical first step to considering a future where healthy people take psychedelics in the name of self-improvement. But it’s also foundational to psychedelics’ potential as a clinical intervention.
Researchers are taking a top-down approach to advocating for the use of psychedelics: first proving the drugs’ efficacy as a treatment for mental illness, then showing that their ability to push the human mind to new realms of understanding could be beneficial to all.
“Our long-term mission is to see these substances used in any setting by humans in which they can be used safely and effectively for any purpose,” says Burge. “But in order to do that, we need to work carefully and methodically to follow all the rules and regulations. That’s how we’re going to achieve the goal.”
Psychedelics for Healthy People. Psychedelics for Healthy People. Psychedelics for Healthy People
Summary : Many people think of psychedelics as relics from the hippie generation or something taken by ravers and music festival-goers, but they may one day be used to treat disorders ranging from social anxiety to depression, according to research presented at the annual convention of the American Psychological Association.
“Combined with psychotherapy, some psychedelic drugs like MDMA, psilocybin and ayahuasca may improve symptoms of anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder,” said Cristina L. Magalhaes, PhD, of Alliant International University Los Angeles, and co-chair of a symposium on psychedelics and psychotherapy. “More research and discussion are needed to understand the possible benefits of these drugs, and psychologists can help navigate the clinical, ethical and cultural issues related to their use.”
Hallucinogens have been studied in the U.S. for their potential healing benefits since the discovery of LSD in the 1940s. However, research has mostly stalled since psychedelics were outlawed in the late 1960s.
A shift may be coming soon though, as MDMA, commonly known as ecstasy, is beginning its third and final phase of clinical trials in an effort to win Food and Drug Administration approval for treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder, said Adam Snider, MA, of Alliant International University Los Angeles, and co-chair of the symposium.
Findings from one study presented at the symposium suggested that symptoms of social anxiety in autistic adults may be treatable with a combination of psychotherapy and MDMA. Twelve autistic adults with moderate to severe social anxiety were given two treatments of pure MDMA plus ongoing therapy and showed significant and long-lasting reductions in their symptoms, the research found.
“Social anxiety is prevalent in autistic adults and few treatment options have been shown to be effective,” said Alicia Danforth, PhD, of the Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute at the Harbor UCLA Medical Center, who conducted the study. “The positive effects of using MDMA and therapy lasted months, or even years, for most of the research volunteers.”
Research discussed also explored how LSD, psilocybin (known colloquially as “magic mushrooms”) and ayahuasca (a brew used by indigenous people of the Amazon for spiritual ceremonies) may benefit people with anxiety, depression and eating disorders.
Adele Lafrance, PhD, of Laurentian University, highlighted a study of 159 participants who reported on their past use of hallucinogens, level of spirituality and relationship with their emotions.
Using hallucinogens was related to greater levels of spirituality, which led to improved emotional stability and fewer symptoms of anxiety, depression and disordered eating, the study found.
“This study reinforces the need for the psychological field to consider a larger role for spirituality in the context of mainstream treatment because spiritual growth and a connection to something greater than the self can be fostered,” said Lafrance.
Other research presented suggested that ayahuasca may help alleviate depression and addiction, as well as assist people in coping with trauma.
“We found that ayahuasca also fostered an increase in generosity, spiritual connection and altruism,” said Clancy Cavnar, PhD, with Núcleo de Estudos Interdisciplinares sobre Psicoativos.
For people suffering from life-threatening cancer, psilocybin may provide significant and lasting decreases in anxiety and distress.
When combined with psychotherapy, psilocybin helped a study’s 13 participants grapple with loss and existential distress. It also helped the participants reconcile their feelings about death as nearly all participants reported that they developed a new understanding of dying, according to Gabby Agin-Liebes, BA, of Palo Alto University, who conducted the research.
“Participants made spiritual or religious interpretations of their experience and the psilocybin treatment helped facilitate a reconnection to life, greater mindfulness and presence, and gave them more confidence when faced with cancer recurrence,” said Agin-Liebes.
Presenters throughout the symposium discussed the need for more research to fully understand the implications of using psychedelics as an adjunct to psychotherapy as well as the ethical and legal issues that need to be considered.
Phencyclidine (PCP) is a mind-altering drug that may lead to hallucinations (a profound distortion in a person’s perception of reality). It is considered a dissociative drug, leading to a distortion of sights, colors, sounds, self, and one’s environment. PCP was developed in the 1950s as an intravenous anesthetic, but due to the serious neurotoxic side effects, its development for human medical use was discontinued. Ketamine (Ketalar), an anesthetic used for surgery and painful procedures was developed instead and is structurally similar to PCP.
In its purest form, PCP is a white crystalline powder that readily dissolves in water or alcohol and has a distinctive bitter chemical taste. On the illicit drug market, PCP contains a number of contaminants causing the color to range from a light to darker brown with a powdery to a gummy mass consistency. you can buy pcp online at buy pcp online
What are PCP’s effects on the brain?
Pharmacologically, PCP is a noncompetitive NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptor antagonist and glutamate receptor antagonist, but also interacts with other receptor sites, and may have effects with dopamine, opioid and nicotinic receptors.
How is PCP used?
PCP is available in a variety of tablets, capsules, and colored powders, which are either smoked, taken orally or by the intranasal route (“snorted”).
Smoking is the most common route when used recreationally. The liquid form of PCP is actually PCP base often dissolved in ether, a highly flammable solvent. For smoking, PCP is typically sprayed onto leafy material such as mint, parsley, oregano, or marijuana. PCP may also be injected. The effects of PCP can last for 4 to 6 hours.
What are the effects of recreational PCP use?
Many believe PCP to be one of the most dangerous drugs of abuse. A moderate amount of PCP often causes users to feel detached, distant, and estranged from their surroundings.
Numbness of the extremities, slurred speech, and loss of coordination may be accompanied by a sense of strength and invulnerability.
A blank stare, rapid and involuntary eye movements, and an exaggerated gait are among the more observable effects.
Auditory hallucinations, image distortion, severe mood disorders, and amnesia may also occur.
Acute anxiety and a feeling of impending doom, paranoia, violent hostility, a psychoses indistinguishable from schizophrenia.BUY PCP ONLINE
Physiological effects of low to moderate doses of PCP include:
The practice of microdosing psychedelics— that is, taking small doses of psychedelic drugs, such as psilocybin or N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), to improve mental health, well-being, or productivity — has garnered more and more attention in recent years.
We have reported on studies that revealed benefits of magic mushrooms and Ayahuasca for treating mental health disorders, often while avoiding the side effects of more conventional treatments.
Anecdotal evidence in online forums speaks of additional benefits, such as “improvements in energy, mood, cognition, concentration, management of stress, creativity, spiritual awareness, productivity, language capabilities, relationships, and visual capabilities.”
Also, the practice has garnered more popularity after prominent figures, including Steve Jobs, praised the benefits of microdosing lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) for creativity and cognition.
But, what exactly is microdosing psychedelics, and does the scientific evidence match the hype? New research, appearing in the Journal of Psychopharmacology, addresses these questions.
Professor David Nutt, who is the Edmond J. Safra Chair in Neuropsychopharmacology at Imperial College London in the United Kingdom, is the senior author of the review.
What is ‘microdosing psychedelics?’
Prof. Nutt describes the motivation for the review, saying, “Despite so much interest in the subject, we still don’t have any agreed scientific consensus on what microdosing is — like what constitutes a ‘micro’ dose, how often someone would take it, and even if there may be potential health effects.”
So, to answer these questions, Prof. Nutt and team critically reviewed existing research and came up with three components that may help define microdosing:
“The use of a low dose below the perceptual threshold that does not impair ‘normal’ functioning of an individual.
A procedure that includes multiple dosing sessions.
The intention to improve well-being and enhance cognitive and/or emotional processes.”
The researchers also note that experts have defined a microdose as “approximately one-tenth to one-twentieth of a recreational dose.”
However, this depends on the nature of the substance. The researchers also caution that the frequency of microdosing can vary from a few days in a row to several weekdays and that the strength and potency of the substance often depend on its source.
Reviewing the benefits of psilocybin
The review focused on psilocybin, which is the active compound in magic mushrooms. Prof. Nutt and colleagues chose psilocybin because it is closer than other psychedelic substances to becoming a clinically approved treatment.
However, the researchers point out that even in the case of psilocybin, there are not enough controlled trials that have measured the effects of the drug against a placebo.
With regards to safety, Prof. Nutt and team emphasize that studies in humans and animals have not been sufficient to demonstrate the benefits of regularly microdosing psilocybin over a long term period.
Additionally, the researchers cite evidence that has pointed to possible cardiovascular risks.
Regarding the potential behavioral benefits of psilocybin, such as better focus and increased creativity, the reviewers conclude that the existing research has yielded mixed results.
Some early studies show that psilocybin targets receptors of serotonin, which some refer to as the “happiness neurotransmitter.” Serotonin also plays a key role in learning and memory, and the reviewers speculate that the reported benefits of microdosing for focus and mood may stem from this fact.
Emphasizing ‘the lack of scientific proof’
Finally, the researchers say that the legality of these substances continues to be the main barrier in the way of scientific testing. However, they hope that their review will spur more clinical tests.
“[R]igorous, placebo-controlled clinical studies need to be conducted with low doses of [psilocybin] to determine whether there is any evidence for the claims of microdosers,” write the reviewers.
The study’s first author, Dr. Kim Kuypers, from Maastricht University in the Netherlands, also comments on the findings, saying, “This review is timely as a lot of hope is generated by positive media reports about alleged effects of microdosing.”
“Patients might feel attracted by those reports to try it but may actually not [be] helped by it. We try to emphasize the lack of scientific proof that microdosing is indeed effective in combating certain symptoms and hope that this will give impetus to new lines of research in this area.”
Dr. Kim Kuypers
“Researchers working in the area of psychedelics regularly receive requests from the media asking about microdosing,” adds Prof. Nutt.
He concludes, “We hope that this critique will provide answers to all these questions in the future as well as providing a framework for research.”